The disagreeing evaluations generated a clear need for more research on whether rural electrification stimulated agricultural development, and if so, whether an alternative energy program could achieve the same results at less cost. Improvements in rural infrastructure are often cited as preconditions for agricultural development. In India, packages of fertilizers, hybrid seeds and pesticides were introduced to farmers in pilot programs during the 1960s. The villages of India surveyed reflected this national commitment to rural electrification and expansion of irrigation. The agricultural development model for rural electrification is based on the assumption that it is part of a land intensification program that includes irrigation; thus, the model applies mainly to countries at quite high levels of cultivation intensity and population density. The proposed model for rural electrification and agricultural development involves three stages: use of electricity, change in farming practices and increases in agricultural yields. Credit apparently is quite an important input for agricultural development.