chapter  2
22 Pages

Agriculture

Agricultural policy is one of the most difficult and important aspects of managing a nation. The formulation of sound agricultural policy is complicated by many major new developments. Inputs to agricultural production have made agriculture heavily dependent on fossil fuels and therefore also on the world energy prices. Genetic engineering is changing dramatically the plants and animals used in agriculture. The Computerized System for Agricultural and Population Planning Assistance and Training package from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization provides a convenient starting point. The agriculture sector produces nine commodities: wheat, rice, coarse grain, bovine and ovine meats, dairy products, other animal products, protein feeds, other food, and non-food agriculture. Agricultural commodities are designated in the model either for final human consumption as food and non-food or for animal consumption. The food requirements are compared with the expected calorie production from both the irrigated and rain-fed agricultural areas.