The region of Emilia Romagna, located along the river Po in northern Italy, is not only one of the most “red” but also one of the most prosperous areas of Italy. In the heart of the region lie the provinces of Parma and Reggio nell’Emilia, where dairy farming is most concentrated. Its stability is due to the fact that the region produces a highly valued product, Parmesan cheese, known locally as “Parmigiano-Reggiano.” The E-calculus is the particular rationality used by farmers who opt for scale enlargement and relative extensification. Farm labor structured according to the I-calculus can also be defined in statistical terms. Besides family farms, one encounters in Emilia Romagna a number of very large farms that are either capitalist-organized or agrarian cooperatives. Family farms organized according to the E-calculus, develop in a similar way to those farms organized along capitalistic lines, that is, via a combination of scale enlargement and relative extensification.