What does it mean to be human? What distinguishes man from other animals? â€œMan’s creation of the universe of symbols,â€ replies Ludwig von Bertalanffy. â€œMan lives in a world not of things, but of symbols.â€ Dr. von Bertalanffy explores the historical development of symbolic language, examines the nature of human values, and shows how a current breakdown of symbolic universes contributes to the feeling of meaninglessness so prevalent in modern society. He notes that a major portion of mankind’s aggressive acts are not biologically induced but arise within symbolic frameworks.