Is it possible to feed those who now are hungry in the world in addition to the billions of people who will be born by the end of the century? Or are we headed for an inevitable Malthusian catastrophe because the task is impossible? What can developing countries do to increase agricultural self-reliance? What population dynamics accompany the transition from high birth and death rates in developing countries to low birth and death rates? What research can aid the struggle to provide food to the world's masses? These and other questions are explored by an array of experts who participated in the Congressional Roundtable on World Food and Population during 1979-80. They offer this collection of papers in the spirit of optimism about the future and about the U.S. role in international development.