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Synthetic Aperture Radar Automatic Detection Algorithms (SARADA) for Oil Spills conveys the pivotal tool required to fully comprehend the advanced algorithms in radar monitoring and detection of oil spills, particularly quantum computing and algorithms as a keystone to comprehending theories and algorithms behind radar imaging and detection of marine pollution. Bridging the gap between modern quantum mechanics and computing detection algorithms of oil spills, this book contains precise theories and techniques for automatic identification of oil spills from SAR measurements. Based on modern quantum physics, the book also includes the novel theory on radar imaging mechanism of oil spills.

With the use of precise quantum simulation of trajectory movements of oil spills using a sequence of radar images, this book demonstrates the use of SARADA for contamination by oil spills as a promising novel technique.

**Key Features:**

- Introduces basic concepts of a radar remote sensing.
- Fills a gap in the knowledge base of quantum theory and microwave remote sensing.
- Discusses the important aspects of oil spill imaging in radar data in relation to the quantum theory.
- Provides recent developments and progresses of automatic detection algorithms of oil spill from radar data.
- Presents 2-D oil spill radar data in 4-D images.

**Microwave Remote Sensing based on Maxwell Equations**

Maxwell’s Equations

Simple wave Equation Based on Maxwell’s Equations

Solution of Electromagnetic Waves in a Homogenous Dielectric

Electromagnetic Wave Characteristics Based on Maxwell’s Equations

The Poynting Theory

Waves from Localized Sources

Momentum as the Route of Radiation Pressure

Can Maxwell’s Electrodynamics Formulate in Space and Time?

**Quantization of Maxwell’s Equation and Electromagnetic Field**

Definitions of Quantization of Electromagnetic Field

Quantum Radiation

The Photoelectric Effect

De Broglie's wavelength

Quantum Electrodynamics

Force Carriers

Maxwell Photon Wave Function

Quantanize of Electromagnetic Waves

Feynman's Perspective of Electromagnetic Waves

Feynman’s Derivation of Maxwell’s Equations

Photon Spins

Do Maxwell's Equation Describe a Single Photon or an Infinite Number of Photons?

**Quantum Signals at Microwave Devices**

Electromagnetic Wave and Microwave Beam

Photon of Microwave Beams

Concept of Generating Microwave Beams

Josephson junctions for Microwave Photon Generations

Mathematical Description of Quantum Microwave

Microwave Signal Harmonic Oscillators Using Ladder Operator

Quantum Electromagnetic Signals Propagating along Transmission Lines

Quantum Langevin Equation

**Quantum Mechanical of Scattering Cross-Section Theory**

Definitions of Scattering

Mathematical Description of Scattering Cross-Section

Why Does Scattering Rely on Spin?

Correlation between the Scattering Cross-section to the Wave Function

Scattering from Roughness Surface

Scattering of Identical Particles

Scattering of Particles with Spin

Scattering of Zero Spin Particles

Resonant Scattering

Dielectric Materials and Electric Polarizability

Atom-Photon Scattering

Quantum Young Scattering

**Quantization of Radar Theory**

Radio Detecting And Ranging

Echo-location Detecting and Ranging

High-Range-Resolution (HRR) Imaging

Radar Microwave Characteristics

Why Quantum Radar Sensors Are Required?

What Does Mean by Quantum Radar?

What are the Classifications of Quantum Radar?

Classical Radar Equation

Quantum Radar Equation

Radar Scattering Regime

Quantum Theory of Radar System

Quantum Radar Illumination

**Theories of Synthetic Aperture Radar**

What is Meant by Aperture?

Antenna Aperture

Real and Synthetic Aperture Radar

Radar Resolution

Spatial Resolution

Slant and Ground Range Resolution

Resolution Cell

Ambiguous Range

Range-Rate Measurement (Doppler)

Ambiguity Function of SAR

SAR Pulse Compression Waveforms

Range Compression

Azimuth Compression

Azimuth Matched Filtering

Speckles

SAR Satellite Sensors

Waves and Frequency Ranges Used by Radar

**Novel Relativity Theories of Synthetic Aperture Radar**

What is Simple Definition of Relativity?

Relativistic of SAR Doppler

Time Dilation

Length Contraction

Does SAR Polarization Cause Length Contraction?

SAR Time and Range Relativities

The relativity of Frequency Changing

Invariance of Space-time Interval

**Quantization of Oil Spill Imagining in Synthetic Aperture Radar**

Quantization of Crude Oil Chemical Chains

Wave Particle Duality of Oil Spill

Quantum of Oil Spill Electric Conductivity

Bragg Scattering and Dielectric Sea Surface

Impact of Surface Dielectric in SAR Backscatter

Quantization Specular Reflection in SAR Data

Quantum Radar Cross Section of Bragg Scattering of Oil-Covered

Decoherence Imaging Mechanism of Oil Spill

**Texture and Quantum Entropy Algorithms for Oil Spill Detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar Images**

Textures Based-SAR Backscattering from Oil-covered Water

Texture Algorithms

Structure of the GLCM

Creating Texture Image

Mathematical Description of Co-occurrence Matrix

Can GLCM Accurately Detect Oil Spill?

Can Quantum Entropy perform better than Entropy for the Automatic Detection of Oil Spill?

**Mahalanobis Classifier and Neural Network Algorithms for Oil Spill Detection**

Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill

Hypotheses

Selected SAR Data Acquisition

Mahalanobis Algorithm

Oil Spill Detection by Mahalanobis Classifier

Artificial Intelligent for Oil Spill Automatic Detection

Frame Structure of Neural Network for Oil Spill Automatic Detection

Backpropagation Learning Algorithm for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill

Backpropagation Training Algorithm

Oil Spill Detection by Neural Network Algorithm

Comparison between Mahalanobis Classifier and Neural Networks

**Fractal Algorithm for Discrimination between Oil Spill and Look-Alike**

Definitions of Fractal

Fractal Dimensions

Estimation of Fractal

Estimation of Hurst Exponent

Fractal Algorithm for Oil Spill Identification

Otsu Thresholding Algorithm

Examined SAR Satellite Data

Backscatter, Incident Angle and Wind Variation along Suspected Oil Spill Patches

Fractal Map of Oil Spill and Look-alikes

How Far Can Fractal Algorithm Detect Oil Spill?

**Quantum Cellular Automata Algorithm for Automatic Detection of Oil Spills and Look-Alikes**

Principles of Quantum-dot Cellular Automata

Quantum Cellular Automata Cell Construction

QCA Adder with Five Gates for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill

Cellular automata for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill

Explored SAR Images

Oil Spills in RADARSAT-2 SAR Data

Automatic Detection of Oil Spill by Quantum Cellular Automata

Accuracy of QCA for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill in SAR Data

Why QCA is able to Detect Oil Spill Automatically?

Quantum Multiobjective Algorithm for Automatic Detection of Oil Spill Spreading from Full Polarimetric Sar Data

Principles of Fully Polarimetric SAR Images

Quantum Computing

Quantum Machine Learning

Quantum Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm (QMEA)

Generation of Qubit Populations

Generation of Oil Spill Population Pattern

Quantum Non-dominate Sort and Elitism (QNSGA-II)

Quantum Pareto Optimal Solution

Automatic Detection of Oil Spill in Full Polarimetric SAR

Applications of QNSGA-II to other Satellite Polarimetric SAR Sensors

Quantum Decoherence Theory and QNSGA-II

Pareto Optimization Role in QNSGA-II

Comparison with Previous Studies

**Simulation of Trajectory Movements of Oil Spill in Multisar Satellite Data Using Quantum Hopfield Algorithm**

Oil Spill Trajectory Models: What They Are, How They Are Created, How They Are Used An Oil Spill?

Role of Synthetic Aperture Radar for Tracking Oil Spill Trajectory Movement

Hypotheses and Objectives

Fay ‘s Algorithm and Trajectory of Oil Spill

Hopfield Neural Network for Retrieving Current Pattern from MultiSAR Data

Quantum Hopfield Algorithm

Quantum Trajectory Search for Oil Spill Movements in MultiSAR Data

Sequences of SAR Data for Oil Spill Trajectory Movements

Trajectory Movements of Oil Spill Using Quantum Hopfield Algorithm

Impact of Current Pattern on Oil Spill Trajectory Movements

How far the Impact of Loop Current on Oil Spill?

Why qHop Algorithm can be used to simulate and track the oil spill trajectory movement?