This chapter discusses land tenure and dualism on the basis of two foundations, first being the historical underpinnings of dualism in the land market, and second, giving an account of the origin of and the initial conditions for the creation of dualism through land alienation policies. The chapter traces the continuation of dualism in the form of continued structural disarticulation of the main economic sectors to the post-colonial economy. The most distinct feature of most post-colonial Southern African economies is the lopsided nature of their pattern and size of production, consumption and trade. Over time into Zimbabwe’s post-independence period, this became the basic problem for structural transformation into modern industrializing economy. It is this continued feature of ‘stubborn and continued dualism’ that constitutes the basic problem for transformation of these economies.