chapter  2
The nature of football
A game of two halves
WithSteffen Borge
Pages 53

The nature of football is such that it is a social historical kind based on direct collective intentionality, which in turn entails mutual recognition of the fact that what we are playing now is football, which allows stage type exceptions with regard to collective intentionality. Being a sport is partly a matter of having a set of rules that define the ensuing activity as a sport of a specific kind. The players must recognize constitutive rules as operative, and they must recognize that their teammates and opponents on the football pitch also recognize the rules in question. Football is also a historical artefact or kind, which means that the sport is in motion, changing as it goes along. Football and rugby football have the same roots or origins. At that stage, there was no mutual recognition that one was playing football or rugby football, and still that stage is part of both football and rugby football as historical kinds. This gives us football as a social historical kind based on collective intentionality, with a stage of the sport at which there was no mutual recognition of being aware that one was partaking in the sport of football.