chapter  16
Plants and Plant-Derived Products as Cancer Chemopreventive Agents
Pages 22

With the great advances made in combating infectious diseases over the last century, chronic degenerative diseases rose to become the major causes of death in most of the world. Chief among these are cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases along with cancer. Notwithstanding massive efforts and investments in improving cancer therapy, the vast majority of the progress made towards reducing overall mortality due to cancer has been achieved through early diagnosis. In

16.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................285 16.2 In¤ammation and Cancer .............................................................................288 16.3 Phytochemicals and Cancer Chemoprevention ............................................ 289

16.3.1 In¤ammation .................................................................................... 289 16.3.1.1 Cyclooxygenase Inhibition ................................................. 289 16.3.1.2 NF-κB Inhibition ............................................................... 291 16.3.1.3 Akt Inhibition ....................................................................292 16.3.1.4 TGF-β Pathways ................................................................ 293 16.3.1.5 Signal-Transducer-and-Activator-of-Transcription ........... 293

16.3.2 Role of Oxygen and Nitrogen Radical Species ................................. 295 16.3.3 Metabolic Modulation ...................................................................... 295 16.3.4 Hypoxia Regulator, HIF1α ...............................................................296 16.3.5 New Novel Targets: miRNAs ...........................................................296

16.4 Applications in Chemoprevention and Therapy ...........................................296 16.4.1 Bioavailability ...................................................................................297 16.4.2 Combinations of Phytochemicals .....................................................297 16.4.3 Combinations with Classical Chemotherapeutic Agents ..................297

16.5 Conclusions ................................................................................................... 298 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................. 298 References .............................................................................................................. 298

contrast to cancer, the mortality rates for cardiovascular disease have been declining over the last decade. This success is attributable in large part to an active prevention approach within the cardiovascular approach to clinical management of disease. The cardiologist begins treatment long before the patient enters into the clinic with overt disease; with identication of the key signs and risk factors, among these hyperlipidemias and high blood pressure, then taking measures to reduce these factors with eventual pharmacological intervention. Thus the patient is treated before overt disease in a prevention approach. The concept of prevention should also be applied to cancer-a signicant number of tumors could be avoided through preventive measures, ranging from simply terminating tobacco exposure to active prevention approaches in higher risk groups.