Salacia species (Celasteraceae) including S. chinensis, S. reticulata and S. oblonga, are used as antidiabetic agents in traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda and Unani. The plants have been used in India, Japan and Korea to treat high blood glucose levels. Pre-clinical investigations have demonstrated the anti-obesity activity of Salacia. Large-scale clinicalstudies are warranted for the potential use of Salacia species in treating diabetes, while pre-clinical research and isolated clinical trials have, thus far, supported this claim. This chapter summarizes the pharmacological investigations carried out on various species of Salacia with respect to diabetes.