The technology of animation goes back to the late nineteenth century. Technological inventions such as celluloid film (Goodwin, 1887), the Kinetoscope, which offered single-audience movie viewing (Edison, 1893), and the cinematograph which allowed multiple-audience movie viewing by projecting on a screen (Lumie`re, 1894) set the basis for what was to follow. The first attempts at creating serious animation content date back to the early twentieth century; early milestones are The Enchanted Drawing and Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (Black-
ton, 1900 and 1906), Fantasmagorie (Cohl, 1908), Little Nemo (McCay, 1911), and the well-known Disney cartoons from the 1920s. Since most cartoon animation was performed by tweening, the drawing of frames in between keyframes, it was only a matter of time before computers took up much of the tweening work using interpolation techniques (See Section 17.2.1). When computer graphics could produce realistic images, computer animation was introduced in feature films, with Tron and Star Trek (1982) being some of the first examples that contained significant computer-animated parts. Later on, entire films were made exclusively using computer animation; Tin Toy (1989) was one of the first.