chapter  8
Mineral Needs of Masters Athletes
Pages 24

In the past few decades there has been an increase in the number of older individuals participating in recreational and competitive sports. For example, the inaugural World Masters Games held in 1985 in Toronto, Canada had 8305 participants across 22 sports. The 2002 Melbourne, Australia World Masters Games hosted 24,886 participants across 26 sports [1]. It has also been reported that

8.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 147 8.2 Calcium ................................................................................................................................. 149

8.2.1 Calcium Status within Individuals ........................................................................... 149 8.2.2 Importance of Calcium on Optimal Exercise Performance ..................................... 150 8.2.3 Studies Conducted on Calcium Supplementation ..................................................... 151

8.3 Phosphorus ............................................................................................................................ 152 8.3.1 Phosphorus Status within Individuals ...................................................................... 152 8.3.2 Importance of Phosphorus on Optimal Exercise Performance ................................ 153 8.3.3 Studies Conducted on Phosphorus Supplementation ................................................ 153

8.4 Magnesium ........................................................................................................................... 154 8.4.1 Magnesium Status within Individuals ...................................................................... 154 8.4.2 Importance of Magnesium on Optimal Exercise Performance ................................ 155 8.4.3 Studies Conducted on Magnesium Supplementation ............................................... 157

8.5 Iron ........................................................................................................................................ 158 8.5.1 Iron Status within Individuals .................................................................................. 158 8.5.2 Importance of Iron on Optimal Exercise Performance ............................................ 158 8.5.3 Studies Conducted on Iron Supplementation............................................................ 160

8.6 Zinc ....................................................................................................................................... 161 8.6.1 Zinc Status within Individuals .................................................................................. 161 8.6.2 Importance of Zinc on Optimal Exercise Performance ........................................... 161 8.6.3 Studies Conducted on Zinc Supplementation ........................................................... 163

8.7 Chromium ............................................................................................................................. 164 8.7.1 Chromium Status within Individuals ....................................................................... 164 8.7.2 Importance of Chromium on Optimal Exercise Performance ................................. 164 8.7.3 Studies Conducted on Chromium Supplementation ................................................. 165

8.8 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................... 165 8.9 Implications for Masters Athletes and Coaches ................................................................... 165 8.10 Implications for Sports Medicine Professionals and Clinicians ........................................... 166 8.11 Future Research Directions .................................................................................................. 166 References ...................................................................................................................................... 166

there was a greater increase in the participation of masters athletes who participated in the New York City Marathon compared to younger age groups [2].