Nanotechnologies. These groups are dedicated to nanotechnologies, but nanotechnologies are also an important aspect of the work in some other TCs or WGs (working groups). To improve communication flow between these, liaisons are established.3 To be effective, liaisons should operate in both directions, with suitable mutual arrangements. It is supposed to include the exchange of basic docu-ments, like new work item proposals and working drafts (ISO/IEC, 2008:18-20). Most standardisation works are initiated by industry, but standards can also be requested by the European Commission to implement European legislation. These are named ‘mandated’ standards. CEN standardisation system costs approximately 800 million Euros per year. Eighty percent of these costs are carried by industry. An overview of the steps for making a standard (in CEN): (1) Someone proposes a new subject to their national standardisations body, which makes an evaluation of the subject. (2) The national body’s task includes, among other things, to
check if there already is ongoing work on the specific subject. (3) The national body also evaluates the one that proposes the subject: does she or he or it (an organisation) represent a certain breadth, and might other actors be interested; in the output and in participating in the work? (4) Once the above things are checked, and other formal things are accepted, the national body either proposes a national standard work, or it sends a proposal for work to be done to the other standardisation bodies that are member of CEN. (5) If five or more of the members vote in favour, a group is established. (6) The group is expected to select a chairman at their first meeting.
(7) A standard would be expected from the group within a time frame of 3 years.4 This would be formulated in a business plan, which is to be approved at a technical committee (TC) level. Usually a national mirror committee is established for interested national parties to follow the work and to meet and discuss with the nominated national experts participating in the European or international standardisation work. These meetings take place at a national level, which of course restricts the use of money for travel. This means that this form of participation would also be interesting for parties with fewer resources available. The development of an ISO standard follows three main steps: (1) Recognising the need for an international standard