chapter  3
The Photon
Pages 30

Light has played a major role in civilizations across human history.

The concept of the photon, the quantum of EM energy, goes

back to Newton and more recently to Einstein’s photoelectric

effect. The photon has remained enigmatic due to its dual wave-

particle nature. Since quantum techniques were formulated around

1927, the photon has remained probabilistic due to Heisenberg’s

uncertainty principle (HUP) where velocity and position cannot

both be known. If a composite photon, or equivalently a bi-spinorial

EM field is assumed, HUP is obviated and the self-field theory (SFT)

formulation results in deterministic internal photon motions. In fact

HUP and SFT are theoretically almost identical in form. From 1923

to 1926 using a 100 inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory,

Hubble discovered that the local group “stars” were in fact other

galaxies outside our Milky Way. Similarly the discovery of structure

within the photon is an extension of our physical knowledge at

the very small end of the size spectrum. It appears there is an

identifiable organization behind the structure of photons and other

field particles, bosons, known to particle physics. Previously thought

to be “elementary,” the composite structure of ordinary photons

appears similar to that of the hydrogen atom obeying a similar SFT

system of equations. This provides a “photon chemistry,” similar

to atomic chemistry, to explain some features of bosons including

W+,W− and Z 0 bosons of the electroweak force and gluons of

the strong nuclear force. Phonons also sit under this theoretical

umbrella and a stoichiometric equation can be written in terms

of gluons, photons and phonons. Three gluons rotating in three

orthogonal directions fit within a modified system of Maxwell-

Lorentz equations providing a basis for a dynamic solution inside

nuclear regions.