chapter
Contents
Pages 1

Preface 4 Abbreviations 4

Section 1: Principles of electrocardiography 5 Explaining the terminology 5

The electrodes 5 The leads 6

The P-QRS-T complex 8 Action potential 8 The cardiac conducting system 8 Components of the P-QRS-T complex 8

The 12 lead ECG 10 Limb leads 10 Chest (precordial) leads 12

Section 2: Comprehensive assessment of the ECG 13 Rate 13

Calculating the heart rate 14 Rhythm 14 The cardiac axis 14

The AP axis 15 Calculating the QRS axis 15

Axis deviation around the vertical axis 18 The P wave 19 The PR interval 19 The Q (q) wave 20 The QRS complex 20 The ST segment 22

ST segment elevation 22 ST segment depression 23

The T wave 24 The U wave 24 The QT interval 25

Section 3: Cases 27

Classification of cases 127 Index 127