Biodiversity and Landscape Protection
The protection of nature from anthropogenic pressures is a particularly difficult problem because it reflects the multiple dimensions of the interaction between natural and social systems. Natural ecosystems and the landscape as well as all kinds of human activities that disturb them present a great complexity. The damage caused by pollution is a significant part of the problem (Chapters 7, 8, and 9) that is described quantitatively or qualitatively by the relevant sciences (chemistry, toxicology etc.) and can be technologically dealt with to an increasingly satisfactory degree (Chapters 10, 11). On the other hand, various alterations of the natural environment (Chapter 5) besides pollution, in addition to their complex physical, chemical, and biological, quantitative or qualitative aspects, present serious social and cultural dimensions that often compose the basic core of the problem. The protection of biodiversity and the natural landscape encounters social difficulties and needs social approaches. The related issue of cultural environment conservation can be similarly considered, since the reasons for protection and the methods employed for it are generally the same. The landscape, which is the projection of our natural environment, is also the image of our culture; moreover, the monuments, historical sites and traditional settlements give additional remarkable and unique elements to this natural landscape.