The Environment in the City
The problems of the urban environment are primarily associated with the rapid increase in the human population over recent decades. One of the most important indirect effects of this increase has been much more rapid, unplanned and careless increase in the populations of many large cities, especially in the developing countries. In 1970, 40% of the Earth’s population lived in cities; by 1999 this figure had increased to 48%, and it is expected to rise to 60% by 2030. It is estimated that during the period between 2000 and 2030 the world population will increase by as many as 2 billion people to the urban population exclusively.