chapter  1
Historical review
Pages 14

When Smeaton constructed the famous lighthouse on Eddystone Rock at the outlet of the English Channel during the period 1756-1759 (Smeaton, 1791), this was the first time a specially developed type of cement for a severe marine environment was applied (Lea, 1970). When the structure was demolished due to severe erosion of the underlying rock in 1877, this structure had remained in very good condition for more than 100 years. Since Smeaton reported his experience on the construction of this lighthouse (Figure 1.1), all the published literature on concrete in marine environments has made up a comprehensive and fascinating chapter in the long history of concrete technology. During the last 150 years, a number of professionals, committees, and national authorities have been engaged in this issue. Numerous papers have been presented to international conferences, such as the International Association for Testing Materials in Copenhagen (1909), New York (1912), and Amsterdam (1927); the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC) in London (1923), Cairo (1926), Venice (1931), and Lisbon (1949); the International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories for Materials and Structures (RILEM) in Prague in 1961 and 1969; the RILEM-PIANC in Palermo in 1965; and the Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte (FIP) in Tibilisi in 1972. Already in 1923, Atwood and Johnson (1924) had assembled a list of approximately 3000 references, and still, durability of concrete structures in marine environments continues to be the subject for research, discussion, and international conferences (Malhotra, 1980, 1988, 1996; Mehta, 1989, 1996; Sakai et al., 1995; Gjørv et al., 1998; Banthia et al., 2001; Oh et al., 2004; Toutlemonde et al., 2007; Castro-Borges et al., 2010; Li et al., 2013).