Synthesis, surface modification and characterization of nanosilicon
The essential difference between the properties of a material constructed, for example, from the individual atoms or molecules and the substance of the same composition, but consisting of nanoparticles, is associated not only with the manifestation of the quantum size effect, but also with the lack of the identity of structural elements in the nanomaterial. In contrast to the atoms or molecules, the nanoparticles are not completely identical. Strictly speaking, they are different not only in size but also in composition. It can be assumed that even nanoparticles of the same size are not identical due to possible differences in the amount, composition and distribution of impurities, which each contains. The presence and composition of the impurities are determined by the entire ‘history’ and depend on the nanoparticle synthesis method and then subsequent location of the substance in the environment.