chapter  6
Chapter 6Treatment of Kraft Black Liquor Using Membrane-Based Separation Process
Pages 14

Fresh usable water, which is around 0.3% of the total water on earth, is one of the world’s most valuable resources and essential to support human life and the environment. The majority of this surface water consumed by modern civilization is used to produce food, farming and different segments of other industries as process water. Already there is more wastewater generated and dispersed today than at any other time in the history of our planet, which results more than one out of six people lack access to safe drinking water, namely, 1.1 billion people, and more than two out of six lack adequate sanitation, namely, 2.6 billion people (Jong-Wook and Bellamy, 2004). 3900 children die every day from waterborne diseases (Jong-Wook and Bellamy, 2004). In reality, these figures could be much higher (Jong-Wook and Bellamy, 2004). The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System notes that it takes 1000 gallons of water to grow and process each pound of food per person in the United States per year. According to the Food Development Authority, the average person eats 1500 pounds of food each year. Therefore, approximately 1.5 million gallons of water is needed to process the food for just one person each year. This statistics shows that so much water is consumed as part of our everyday commodities. Apart from these, there are so many other segments where water consumption rate is also quite high. To fight the scarcity of fresh water, emphases are now given on the treatment and recycling of dispersed water or wastewater back into the process.