Technical equipment of particle physics
From the time of the atomic nucleus discovery by Rutherford it has been clear that a study of the nuclei structure requires the production of accelerated beams. Natural sources of accelerated particles, radioactive elements, exhibit very low intensities, restricted energies, and are absolutely uncontrollable. To produce high-energy particles, the developments of special accelerating facilities were being started. Presently, giant accelerators symbolize modern elementary particle physics. Experiments involving elementary particles are impossible without the use of accelerators, and the progress of physics is inconceivable without such experiments. During the twentieth century typical accelerator energies were varying from a few eV to several TeV. In other words, the attainable energies were growing exponentially, being doubled every 2.5 years. It is obvious that such a rapid energy growth cannot be expected in the twenty-first century. Modern accelerator facilities include three basic blocks:
(i) an accelerator that effects the kinetic energy increase, formation, and ejection of highintensity particle beams; (ii) a detector that comprises a system for registration of the interaction processes and analysis of the reaction products; besides, a particular section of the detector may be used as a target; (iii) equipment for input/output, storage and processing of the experimental information; a unit for automatic control of the whole accelerating system.