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SE dopant contrast in L VSEM: the effects of surface and vacuum conditions
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The availability of high resolution FE-SEMs that can be operated at low beam voltages has generated much interest in the imaging of semiconductor devices and structures at low voltages. SE images collected at Low voltages (<5keV) show distinguishable contrasts from doped regions in the semiconductor. Generally, in theSE image, p type doped areas appear brighter and n type doped areas appear darker relative to the undoped areas. Therefore, by combining the high-resolution capability of L VSEM and with the contrast observed from doped regions, it is possible to image doped regions of nanometer scale semiconductor devices.