chapter  1
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The rate of failures in silo storage structures has been higher than for any other structural form for many decades, and continues to be high with over 1000 failures per year in North America alone in the 1980s [1]. There are many reasons for this high failure rate, but the weakness of loading standards and the lack of structural standards is certainly a factor. The large differences between national standards for silo loading [2,3] compound this problem.