Chapter 3 on elementary cases gives design rules for "pure" shells which are subjected to uniform, distributed loads. In many practical cases, the shell is loaded by local concentrated forces, e.g. from attached piping systems or from the supports. Furthermore, cutouts and local stiffeners may cause disturbances which could initiate collapse. So far very few design recommendations are available and those given below may be interpreted as an attempt to provide rational methods for analysis of these problems.