chapter  3
Pages 101

In the following compilation of elementary cases, recommendations are given for calculation of the buckling resistance of various shell elements subjected to simple load distributions. The ie ,istance is given as the characteristic value of the load carrying capacity. These values have normally been obtained as lower limit values of test results. Some cases are more sensitive than others to disturbances such as shape deviations from the nominal geometry and deviations from assumed boundary conditions. In the cases where the sensitivity is high, the buckling resistance has been determined with additional caution. The values given for the resistance can be used as basis for design by use of the method of partial coefficients or as allowable loads after division by the safety factor required, see Chapter 2. The rules apply if the tolerance level with regard to initial imperfections etc. is satisfied, or if there are indications that the method of analysis yields conservative results. Shape deviations leading to a lower resistance must be taken into account. Greater deviations than those specified by the tolerances given below are considered by reduction factors indicated in the different sections. Disturbances such as openings and local, concentrated loads may be treated by use of the methods presented in chapter 4.