chapter  17
Pneumatic Flow, Pressure Drop, and Response
Pages 12

Fig. 17.1 Standard test setup for airflow coefficients. Flow meter may be placed upstream or downstream. (Courtesy of the National Fluid Power Association, Milwaukee, WI.) Also see Fig. 17.6.

One easy answer-unfortunately practiced widely-is to make all the valves and piping the same size as the port on the final power element. For example, if the air cylinder port is 1.0 in. , make all the control valves 1.0 in. It's a conservative solution if you don't mind an occasional valve 10 times larger than needed or a pipeline so large in diameter that it acts as a plenum and slows down response to a pressure change.