Serviceability limit states (SLSs) concern the functioning of the structure and its structural members under normal use, the comfort of people, and the structural appearance, associated with inappropriately high deformations or cracking rather than aesthetics, and refer to
• Stress limitations for structural steel, reinforcement, and concrete • Web breathing • Design of shear connectors (see Chapter 12) • Control of cracking for concrete • Deflections and vibrations control
10.2 STRESS ANALYSIS AND LIMITATIONS
Stress analysis refers to the determination of internal forces and moments and subsequently of stresses for all cross sections and their fibers along the bridge. Stress analysis is similar to this at ultimate limit state (ULS) for cross sections of classes 3 and 4 (see Sections 9.9 and 9.10 and Example 9.4). It is based on the following considerations:
• Internal forces and moments are determined for SLSs by means of elastic global analysis (Chapter 7). Second-order global analysis as indicated by Equation 7.18 may be required to be performed.