chapter  12
Introduction to in vitro toxicology testing
Pages 6

It was not until the development of cell and tissue culture techniques in the 1950s that allowed the scientifi c community to understand the principles and mechanisms of the biomedical sciences, particularly cell biology of cellular functions. By the 1960s, the development of cell culture methods allowed for the growth of animal and human cells and tissues on plastic. This was the fi rst example that demonstrated the survival of cells outside intact organisms. With further refi nement of the culture conditions, and insights into the requirements for maintaining viability of organs, tissues, and cells in an artifi cial environment, a transformation in cell biology was underway.