Surgical endodontics may be divided into the following categories:
■ Incision and drainage. ■ Periradicular surgery. ■ Corrective surgery. ■ Extraction and reimplantation.
The consensus report of the European Society of Endodontology suggests that endodontic surgery is indicated when:
■ A canal is obstructed (e.g. with a separated instrument), and there are associated symptoms.