chapter  40
Military Surgery
Pages 2

War in the 19th century demonstrated a capacity for death and destruction more horrific than ever seen before. Crowded camps, poor sanitation, and inadequate nutrition exacerbated the mortality rates already skyrocketing from a more lethal weaponry. The batdefields urgendy required surgeons and in exchange provided an endless array o f injuries on which the inexperienced could perfect the surgical arts. The 18th century barber-surgeon was transformed into a polished performer of complex operations, first an innovator on the batdefield and then a teacher in civil­ ian hospitals.