chapter  45
The Ethics of Surgical Research
Pages 3

Ethics is not a new discipline, but rather one as ancient as philosophy itself. At the very beginning of civilization, early Sumerians recognized the importance of justice and moral principles.1 With this in mind they created the Hammurabi Code based on a strict and similar retribution to the damage incurred. The discipline of surgery has a long history as well, and the study of both surgery and ethics has greatly influenced the practice of medicine.