chapter  22
Characterization of Oil-Field Calcium Carbonate Scales
Pages 16

The formation of scale deposits in an oil pipe is a serious problem in the petroleum industry [1-3]. A number of compounds can form scales, but calcium carbonates, calcium sulfates, strontium sulfate, and barium sulfate are the most commonly formed scale deposits. The presence of iron compounds such as carbonate (siderite), suldes (pyrite and pyrrhotite), oxide (goethite, magnetite, and hematite), and silica is also frequently observed in the oil-eld scales. Calcium carbonate precipitates in several different crystalline forms, such as calcite, aragonite, vaterite, calcium carbonate monohydrate, and calcium carbonate hexahydrate. Although calcite is the

22.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................407 22.2 Experimental Procedure ...............................................................................409