chapter  4
Planning for a Sustainable Energy Future
Pages 14

Energy represents the largest controllable cost of providing wastewater or water services to the public. Most facilities were designed and built when energy costs were not a major concern. With large pumps, drives, motors, and other equipment operating 24 hours a day, water and wastewater utilities can be among the largest individual energy users in the community. In a National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) survey of energy use in a typical wastewater treatment plant, 38% of energy use was for in-plant pumping, 26% for aeration, 25% for effluent reuse pumping, and 11% for other purposes (Jones, 2006; USEPA, 2008).