chapter  9
Discrete Damage Mechanics
Pages 26

Prediction of damage initiation and propagation is tackled in Chapter 8 using continuum damage mechanics (CDM). Alternatives to CDM include: micromechanics of damage, crack opening displacement methods, computational micromechanics, and synergistic methods. While CDM (Chapter 8) homogenizes the damage and treats it phenomenologically, the alternative methods attempt to represent the actual geometry and characteristics of damage.