chapter  19
Applications of Membrane Technology in the Dairy Industry
Pages 34

Microltration (MF), ultraltration (UF), nanoltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO) are the four major membrane processes that have become standard unit operations in the dairy industry. They often offer cheaper capital and utility

costs alternatives and have displaced conventional separation techniques, which require phase change, such as the energyintensive distillation, evaporation, or freeze concentration. Membrane processes require only small amounts of electrical energy for recirculation and feed pumps and small amounts of steam for heating cleaning solutions, so that even RO, which is the most energy intensive of the membrane processes,

19.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 505 19.1.1 General Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 505 19.1.2 Current Applications............................................................................................................................................ 506

19.2 Membrane-Based Processes and Their Uses ................................................................................................................... 506 19.2.1 Microltration ...................................................................................................................................................... 506 19.2.2 Ultraltration ....................................................................................................................................................... 506 19.2.3 Reverse Osmosis .................................................................................................................................................. 507 19.2.4 Nanoltration ....................................................................................................................................................... 507

19.3 Industrial Applications .................................................................................................................................................... 507 19.3.1 Concentration and Fractionation of Whey Proteins by Ultraltration ................................................................ 507 19.3.2 Pretreatment of Cheese Whey by Microltration ................................................................................................ 508 19.3.3 Cheese Manufacturing ......................................................................................................................................... 509

19.3.3.1 Ultraltration of Milk ........................................................................................................................... 509 19.3.3.2 Microltration of Milk and Recovery of Native Whey Proteins .......................................................... 512 19.3.3.3 Vatless Manufacture of Cheese..............................................................................................................514