chapter  26
Overview and the Current Status of Membrane-Based Processing of Radioactive Nuclear Plant Waste: Evaluation of Some Case Studies
Pages 14

Radioactive wastes are generated during nuclear fuel cycle operation, production, and application of radioisotope in medicine, industry, research, and agriculture and as a by-product of natural resource exploitation, which includes mining and processing of ores, combustion of fossil fuels, or production of natural gas and oil. Classication of these wastes is very helpful throughout their management phases with respect to their generation through collection, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, and transportation to nal disposal. Classications are usually derived from different perspectives, that is, safety perspective, the physical/ chemical characteristics of the waste, process engineering demands, or regulatory issues [1-3]. The radioactivity level in the waste affects the selection of its different management options owing to its shielding requirements. Therefore, the current internationally accepted classication system is based on the activity level and half-life. This system classies the radioactive wastes into exempt wastes (EW); low-and intermediate-level wastes (LILWs), which may be subdivided

into short-lived (LILW-SL) and long-lived (LILW-LL) wastes; and high-level wastes (HLWs). Table 26.1 lists the characteristics of these waste classes [3].