chapter  28
Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment
Pages 18

Progressively stringent emission standards have prompted the development of innovative technologies for the treatment of both municipal and industrial wastewater. Perhaps the fastest-growing technology in the wastewater treatment sector is the membrane separation bioreactor, generally designated the membrane bioreactor (MBR). It was originally

developed as a response to the need to achieve process intensication and the achievement of tighter emission  requirements. The estimated worldwide installed capacity stands at 5 million m3 day−1 [1]. The process is predominantly applied for municipal wastewater treatment; however, it has been adopted for water recycling applications in large buildings in Japan since the 1980s [2,3] and is also used for industrial

28.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................741 28.2 MBR Operation ............................................................................................................................................................... 742

28.2.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................................................. 742 28.2.2 Process Design ..................................................................................................................................................... 743 28.2.3 Membrane Selection ............................................................................................................................................ 744 28.2.4 Operation and Control ......................................................................................................................................... 744 28.2.5 Maintenance ........................................................................................................................................................ 744

28.3 MBR Performance ........................................................................................................................................................... 744 28.3.1 Municipal Wastewater Carbonaceous Removal .................................................................................................. 744 28.3.2 Nutrient Removal ................................................................................................................................................. 744

28.3.2.1 Nitrication ........................................................................................................................................... 744 28.3.2.2 Denitrication ....................................................................................................................................... 745 28.3.2.3 Phosphorus Removal ............................................................................................................................. 745

28.3.3 Benchmarking the MBR against the CAS Process ............................................................................................. 746 28.3.4 Micropollutant Removal from Municipal Wastewater ........................................................................................ 746 28.3.5 Carbonaceous Removal from Industrial Wastewater .......................................................................................... 746 28.3.6 Removal of Specic Organic Pollutants from Industrial Wastewater ................................................................. 748 28.3.7 Energy Consumption ........................................................................................................................................... 748

28.4 Mechanisms Contributing to MBR Performance ............................................................................................................ 748 28.4.1 Membrane Fouling .............................................................................................................................................. 749 28.4.2 Biomass Morphology ........................................................................................................................................... 750 28.4.3 Microbial Ecology ............................................................................................................................................... 750 28.4.4 Microbial Physiology ............................................................................................................................................751 28.4.5 Factors Contributing to Biomass Yield .................................................................................................................751