chapter  3
Reverse Osmosis Membrane
Pages 18

The fastest growing desalination process is a membrane separation process called reverse osmosis (RO). The most remarkable advantage of RO is that it consumes little energy since no phase change is involved in the process. RO employs hydraulic pressure to overcome the osmotic pressure of the salt solution, causing water-selective permeation from the saline side of a membrane to the freshwater side as the membrane barrier rejects salts [1-4]. Polymeric membranes are usually fabricated from materials such as cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose triacetate (CTA), and polyamide (PA) by the dry-wet phase inversion technique or by coating aromatic PA via interfacial polymerization (IFP) [5].