chapter  12
23 Pages

Minerals and Athletic Performance

Introduction ............................................................................................................ 276 Calcium .................................................................................................................. 276

Significance in Human Physiology and Health ................................................. 276 Regulation in the Human Body ......................................................................... 277 Calcium Requirements ...................................................................................... 277 Status in Athletes ............................................................................................... 279 Exercise Performance and Supplementation ..................................................... 279

Magnesium ............................................................................................................. 282 Significance in Human Physiology and Health ................................................. 282 Magnesium Homeostasis during Exercise ........................................................ 282 Magnesium Requirements ................................................................................. 283 Status in Athletes ...............................................................................................284 Exercise Performance and Supplementation .....................................................284

Iron .........................................................................................................................287 Significance in Human Physiology and Health .................................................287 Regulation in the Human Body .........................................................................287 Iron Requirements .............................................................................................288 Status in Athletes ...............................................................................................288 Exercise Performance and Supplementation ..................................................... 289

Zinc ........................................................................................................................290 Significance in Human Physiology and Health .................................................290 Zinc Regulation during Exercise ....................................................................... 291 Regulation in the Human Body ......................................................................... 291 Zinc Requirements ............................................................................................ 291 Status in Athletes ...............................................................................................292 Exercise Performance and Supplementation ..................................................... 293

Summary ................................................................................................................ 293 References ..............................................................................................................294

Minerals are required micronutrients involved in numerous metabolic reactions in the body, including glycolysis, lipolysis, proteolysis, enzymatic activity, structural components, and antioxidant defense systems. There are 7 major minerals and 11 trace minerals (Table 12.1). It would not be feasible to discuss all 18 minerals within this chapter; thus, the following minerals will be the focus of this chapter: calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc.