chapter  3
20 Pages

Dietary Supplements for Endurance Athletes

Endurance in sport may be defined in several ways. For example, anaerobic power endurance may be important for a 400-m dash and intermittent high-intensity endurance may be critical in team sports, such as football (soccer). Other chapters in this book, such as Chapters 5 and 6, provide proper nutritional strategies, including use of dietary supplements, for such athletic endeavors. This chapter will focus on aerobic endurance, or the ability to exercise continuously at submaximal intensity for prolonged periods of time. This definition includes such sports as race walking,

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 45 Sports Supplements That Are Not Safe or Permissible............................................ 47 Sports Supplements That Are Not Effective ............................................................ 49

Carbohydrate-Related Supplements .................................................................... 49 Fat-Related Supplements .................................................................................... 49 Protein-Related Supplements ..............................................................................50 Vitamins and Vitamin-Like Substances .............................................................. 51 Minerals............................................................................................................... 51 Herbals, Extracts, Constituents, and Related Supplements................................. 52

Sports Supplements That May Be Effective ............................................................ 53 Phosphate Salts....................................................................................................54 Sodium ................................................................................................................54 Sodium Bicarbonate ............................................................................................ 55 β-Alanine ............................................................................................................. 56 Nitrates ................................................................................................................ 56

Sports Supplements Considered Effective ............................................................... 58 Caffeine ............................................................................................................... 58

Mechanism ..................................................................................................... 59 Caffeine Combined with Other Supplements ................................................. 59 Recommended Supplementation Protocol .....................................................60

Conclusion ...............................................................................................................60 References ................................................................................................................ 61

cross-country running and skiing, road race cycling, distance swimming, triathlons, and similar sport endeavors. The energy demands of aerobic endurance exercise are presented in Chapter 1 and nutritional recommendations are presented in Chapter 2. This chapter will focus on dietary supplements.