- De Novo Programming and Changeable Parameters
When dealing with MODM problems, we usually confront a situation in which it is almost impossible to optimize all criteria in a given system. This property requires so-called trade-offs-we cannot increase the level of satisfaction for a criterion without decreasing the level for another criterion. Zeleny (1981, 1986) proposed De Novo programming to re-design or re-shape given systems to achieve aspirations or desired levels. He suggested that trade-offs are properties of an inadequately designed system and thus can be eliminated by re-designing a better, preferably optimal, system.