chapter  7
The Use of Montmorillonite Clay in Polymer Nanocomposite Foams
Pages 20

The use of minerals as fillers in polymer materials was extensively employed until the late 1970s aiming to reduce final costs, since these fillers are heavier and cheaper than the polymers that had been used. As there was a vertiginous increase in petroleum prices during and after the 1973 and 1979 crises, in addition to the introduction of polypropylene on a commercial scale and the development of new materials containing mica, glass spheres and fibers, talc, and calcium carbonate, the ceramic raw material market as fillers was expanded and research regarding  the  interaction  between

7.1 Polymer/Clay Nanocomposite Technology ................................................... 149 7.1.1 Polymer/Clay Nanocomposite Preparation Methods ........................ 151 7.1.2 Polymer/Clay Nanocomposite Morphology ..................................... 151 7.1.3 Montmorillonite Clay and Its Organomodification .......................... 152 7.1.4 Polymer Graphitization ..................................................................... 155

7.2 Foams ............................................................................................................ 156 7.2.1 Foam Preparation Methods .............................................................. 157 7.2.2 Polymer/Clay Nanocomposite Foams ............................................... 159 7.2.3 A Brief Theory Concerning the Nucleation Agent ........................... 160

7.3 Examples of Polymer/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Foams .................. 160 7.3.1 General Purpose Plastic/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Foams ... 161 7.3.2 Engineering Plastic/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Foams ......... 162 7.3.3 Elastomeric Polymer/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Foams ....... 163 7.3.4 Biodegradable Polymer/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Foams ... 164 7.3.5 Natural Polymer/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Foams .............. 164

7.4 Future Perspectives ....................................................................................... 165 References .............................................................................................................. 165

polymers and fillers was initiated. This research was developed during the 1980s and the 1990s and contributed to raising minerals from a simple filler condition to a functional filler condition.