chapter
12 Pages

Table of contents

Reference .......................................................................................... 374

Chapter 13 Deontology of Professions and Functions ...................................................................... 377

13.1 Deontology ....................................................................................... 377 13.2 Deontology, the science of professional duty ..................................... 378

13.2.1 The reason for deontology .................................................... 378 13.2.1 First known deontological code ............................................. 378 13.2.3 Deontology: neither morals nor ethics .................................... 379 13.2.4 Compliance between a deontological code and virtuous behavior 379

13.3 A pioneer, an example: the medical profession ................................. 380 13.3.1 A deontological code ............................................................. 380 13.3.2 Medical-ethical guidelines ...................................................... 381 13.3.3 An ethical think tank within SAMS: the CEC ........................... 381

13.4 Deontology of State functions [13.7] ................................................. 382 13.4.1 Deontology of public functions ............................................... 382 13.4.2 Deontology of public functions: cardinal principles ................ 383 13.4.4 Values of a public administration ........................................... 384 13.4.5 How do we deal with conflicts of value? ............................... 385 13.4.6 Value conflicts and whistleblowing ......................................... 385

13.5 Deontological charters and codes: hazy communications ................... 386 13.5.1 Codes or charters? ................................................................. 386 13.5.2 The proliferation of deontological codes: retreat of the State? 387

13.6 Deontology of engineering and technology ....................................... 387 13.6.1 Ethics and deontology of scientists ......................................... 387 13.6.2 Ethics and deontology of the engineer ................................... 388 13.6.3 A historical antecedent – the Regius Manuscript ..................... 388 13.6.4 Ethics of availability and effectiveness for engineers ................ 388 13.6.5 Evolution of deontological charters for engineers ................... 389

13.7 The FEANI Charter ............................................................................. 389 13.8 Charters for software engineers ........................................................ 390 13.9 Business ethics in other professions .................................................. 391

References ........................................................................................ 391

Chapter 14 Environmental Management and the ISO 14000 family ............................................................................................ 393

14.1 Increasing number of environmental problems ................................... 393 14.1.1 The environment becomes a theme ........................................ 393 14.1.2 The first shock ........................................................................ 394 14.1.3 Chernobyl, a nuclear remake ................................................. 395 14.1.4 Sustainability, an avatar of the results of the Club of Rome? ... 395

14.2 Environmental policy and sustainable development .......................... 396 14.3 Environmental policy and environmental management ...................... 396

14.3.1 What is the role of ISO 14001? .............................................. 396 14.4 Private sector initiatives, and those of the UN and the EU .................. 397

14.4.1 CERES ................................................................................... 397 14.4.2 Business Charter for Sustainable Development ....................... 397 14.4.3 Global reporting and Global Compact .................................... 399 14.4.4 The EU and EMAS – Eco-audit (Smea II) .................................. 400

14.5 Benefits of an environmental management system ............................ 401 14.6 Presentation of ISO 14001:2004 ........................................................ 401 14.7 Other documents of the ISO 14000 family ......................................... 403 14.8 The heart of ISO 14001: Clause 4 ...................................................... 405

14.8.1 Preparing the plan ................................................................. 405 14.8.2 Implementation ..................................................................... 406 14.8.3 Measurement and monitoring ................................................ 406 14.8.4 Identification and management of emergencies ..................... 406

14.9 EMS documentation ......................................................................... 408 14.10 Moral obligations in ISO 14004? ...................................................... 409 14.11 Certification, recognition and the effects of ISO 14001 ................... 409 14.12 Environmental audits and ISO 19011:2002 ...................................... 410 14.13 Post-certification .............................................................................. 411 14.14 Environmental communication and ISO 14063:2006 ........................ 411

14.14.1 ISO 14063 and internal communications ............................. 411 14.14.2 ISO 14063 and external communication .............................. 412 14.14.3 A proactive external communication for the Eco-audit .......... 412

14.15 Conclusions: ISO 14001, advantages and ambiguities .......................... 413 References ...................................................................................... 414

Chapter 15 Social Responsibility of Organizations and ISO 26000 ................................................... 415

15.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 415 15.2 Corporate social responsibility (SR) and the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) ... 415

15.2.1 Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development 415 15.2.2 Ambiguous from the start?..................................................... 416 15.2.3. The three pillars of social responsibility .................................. 417 15.2.4 Critics of social responsibility .................................................. 417 15.2.5 An unfortunate omission of TBL: Corporate governance ......... 418 15.2.6 Quality of corporate governance, OECD principles, the Sarbanes-Oxley act and COSO2 ........................................ 419 15.2.7 Governance and social responsibility ....................................... 421

15.3 Corporate social responsibility (SR): what to choose? ......................... 421 15.3.1 A wealth of initiatives ............................................................. 421 15.3.2 Calling for meta-standards?.................................................... 422

15.4 A pioneer, the French Standard AFNOR SD 21000 ............................ 423 15.4.1 A standard and an application document .............................. 423 15.4.2 Strategic issues ....................................................................... 424 15.4.3 The strategic approach ........................................................... 424 15.4.4 The deployment and implementation of an action plan .......... 426 15.4.5 Self-assessment in the light of sustainable development (SD) .. 426

15.5 A promising start: ISO 26000 ............................................................ 427 15.5.1 Foundations and functions ..................................................... 427 15.5.2 Comparisons with other basic texts ........................................ 428 15.5.3 Scope of ISO 26000 ............................................................... 429 15.5.4 Areas concerned ................................................................... 429 15.5.5 Type of standard ..................................................................... 430 15.5.6 Structure and contents of ISO 26000 ...................................... 430 15.5.7 ISO 26000 in a nutshell .......................................................... 435 15.5.8 Key steps in implementing ISO 26000 .................................... 436 15.5.9 Advantages of implementing ISO 26000 ................................ 438 15.5.10 Towards integration? ............................................................ 438

15.6 Corporate charters on ethical principles – a marketing strategy? ........ 441 15.6.1 Charter of ethics or social responsibility? ................................ 441 15.6.2 Three case studies: The Body Shop, L’Oréal and Nivea ............. 441 15.6.3 A skillful and responsible policy, that of Nestlé ........................ 442 15.6.4 A paragon of ethics and sustainability (www.switcher.com) .... 445

15.7 Limits and opportunities of the market for virtue ............................... 445 15.7.1 The real impact is weak .......................................................... 445 15.7.2 Enhance collaboration between governments and organizations 446 15.7.3 The economy at a turning point? ............................................ 446 References ........................................................................................ 447