chapter  28
18 Pages

Bone Growth in African Children and Adolescents

The continent of Africa occupies an area of approximately 30 million km2. It stretches 8000 km from north (Tunisia, 37°N) to south (South Africa 34°S) and 7400 km from west (Cape Verde, 17°W) to east (Somalia, 51°E). Thus, the continent encompasses temperate and tropical countries and has geographical features ranging from desert to tropical rain forest and altitudes from below

Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 433 Burden of Nutrition-Related Skeletal Disorders in Africa ............................................................. 434

Intrauterine Growth Retardation and Stunting ...................................................................... 434 Rickets and Osteomalacia ..................................................................................................... 435 Fluorosis ............................................................................................................................... 435 Osteoporosis ......................................................................................................................... 436

Bone Growth and Development ..................................................................................................... 437 Linear Growth ....................................................................................................................... 437 Other Skeletal Dimensions ................................................................................................... 437 Skeletal Maturation and Bone Age ....................................................................................... 437 Bone Mineral Accretion, Content and Density, Peak Bone Mass, and Strength .................. 437 Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover ...............................................................................440

Environmental Factors and Skeletal Growth in Africa ..................................................................440 Diet and Nutrition .................................................................................................................440