The Bone–Vascular Axis in Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results from functional abnormalities of any one of the three anatomical substructures in the kidney: the glomeruli, the tubules, or the interstitium. An estimation of overall kidney function is made by measurement of serum creatinine concentration, which can be used to estimate the glomerular „ltration rate. Kidney function may decline as a result of congenital or acquired disease or as a result of functional decline related to aging. This chapter examines the interrelationships among abnormal mineral metabolism, bone disease, and vascular calci„cation in patients with CKD. Discussion of pharmacologic options in the treatment of patients with CKD is also offered.