Nutrition and Bone Health: Promotion of Bone Gain and Prevention of Bone Loss across the Life Cycle
Healthy bone development and maintenance result primarily from good dietary intakes and regular physical activities throughout life. Overwhelmingly, the strict approach of dietary prevention of osteoporosis has involved supplementation with calcium and/or vitamin D, or a combination of the two micronutrients, as well as other nutrients or plant chemicals. A broad spectrum of supplements, including multiple micronutrients, has not been studied in prospective clinical trials for the prevention of osteoporosis. More recently, several reports have supported skeletal bene„ts of these supplements in older adults, primarily postmenopausal women, who were supplemented with one or another micronutrient, with soy iso—avones, and with small combinations of nutrients. Yet, a consensus of the skeletal bene„ts of both nutrients and non-nutrient plant molecules has not yet been established. Therefore, this chapter attempts to review a few of the nutritional issues that raise concerns about skeletal health, and it points to areas where further clinical investigation is needed.