Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Recruitment
In the past decade, it has become clear that the skeleton is integrated with other metabolic tissues and that the skeletal microenvironment, which includes not only bone cells but also hematopoietic precursors, adipocytes, endothelial, and stem cells, is critical for regulating the process of bone remodeling. The niche that is established at various locales throughout the marrow requires the maintenance of all these cell types to preserve skeletal mass and respond to stressors that may be genetic, environmental, or pharmacologic. Diet also plays a critical role in maintaining the health of the niche and in—uences the exit of stem cells from a quiescent to active state and their eventual differentiation. In this review, we discuss the origin of bone cells, their relationship to other marrow components, and the effects of diet on the proliferation and differentiation of these cells.