Legislative and Regulatory Background to the Assessment of Risks from Plant Protection Products in Soil
At the time of writing, the regulation of plant protection products (PPPs) in the European Union (EU) is undertaken according to European Commission Directive 91/414/EEC and its various annexes and amending directives (European Council Directive 91/414/EEC 1991). This Directive is due to be replaced by the European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009 (EC 2009). Although increasingly harmonized at a national level within Europe, certain European member states (MSs) have also required some further assessment of risks to soil organisms and functions when PPPs are registered locally. Other legislation will apply outside of Europe and to the assessment of risks from other forms of chemical contamination (e.g., contaminated land). While semi-field methods might well prove useful for such assessments, we concentrate here only on their potential for use in effects and risk assessment for PPPs within Europe.