chapter  10
22 Pages

Scaling Up and Processing Nutraceutical Dispersions Emulsions and Suspensions

Nutraceutical dispersions can be formulated as either nutraceutical emulsions or suspensions. Nutraceutical emulsions are the active ingredients dispersed in oil phase, or oil phase itself can be a nutraceutical ingredient, such as castor oil emulsion. The oil phase is further dispersed as globules in the water phase, leading to

CONTENTS

10.1 Definitions of Nutraceutical Dispersion Formulations ............................... 239 10.2 Nutraceutical Suspensions .......................................................................... 241 10.3 Nutraceutical Dispersion Formulation: Possible Challenges ......................242 10.4 Nutraceutical Dispersions Process Development: Key Concepts ...............244 10.5 Process Development of Nutraceutical Dispersions: Important Factors

to Consider .................................................................................................. 247 10.6 Process Equipment Design, Rating, and Selection .....................................249 10.7 Nutraceutical Dispersion Processing: Batch versus Continuous

Operations ...................................................................................................250 10.8 Technology Source and Process Intensification .......................................... 251 10.9 Processing of Nutraceutical Dispersions Process Validation ..................... 251 10.10 Nutraceutical Dispersion Commercial Production: Technology

Transfer Documentation Package ............................................................... 253 10.11 Nutraceutical Dispersion Manufacturing and Process Analytical

Technology .................................................................................................. 253 References .............................................................................................................. 257

an emulsion with two immiscible phases in one system. Most of the nutraceutical emulsions are stabilized using an emulsifying agent or a combination of emulsifying agents and interphase stabilizers or surface active agents. Most of the nutraceutical emulsions are turbid milky liquid preparations containing several ingredients, besides the active nutraceutical ingredient to offer better stability to the product. Examples of nutraceutical emulsions available in the US market are dietary omega-3 fatty acid emulsions, dietary omega-3 fatty acids (http://www .croda.com) as functional foods in oil-water emulsions, microencapsulated oil-water emulsion systems, and emulsion droplet engineering to stabilize omega-3 fatty acids. Other examples of emulsified food products are mayonnaise, milk, sauces, and salad dressings (Chen, Weiss, and Shahidi 2006). Nutraceutical dispersions with herbal and mineral ingredients of natural origin pose different kinds of challenges to the formulator.