Electrical Control of Angiogenesis
Many extracellular biochemical signals control angiogenesis. In addition, biophysical factors are being recognized that affect endothelial behaviors and angiogenesis signaling pathways. Here we review the experimental evidence for electrical signals as a controller of angiogenesis. In vivo electrical stimulation enhances angiogenesis in muscle and brain tissues. Electric šelds (EFs) regulate expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 8 (IL8) in muscle cells and vascular endothelial cells. Electrical stimulation activates multiple signaling pathways that control endothelial cells and are important for angiogenesis. In ex vivo models, sprouting of endothelial cells and vessel formation from explants can be reorientated by static electric charges or applied EFs. While the role of endogenous EFs in angiogenesis needs further investigation, EFs represent a novel type of signaling paradigm for control of angiogenesis. The combination of electrical stimulation and other regulatory mechanisms may offer an effective technique to modulate angiogenesis, which may lead to therapies for angiogenesis-related diseases.